Classification of Solutions by Solvent Type
Aqueous solutions are the most prevalent
of the oral solutions. Drugs are dissolved in water along with any necessary
flavorings, preservatives, or buffering salts. Distilled
or purified water should always be used when preparing pharmaceutical
The following are examples of aqueous pharmaceutical solutions.
- Syrups are concentrated,
viscous, sweetened, aqueous solutions that contain less than 10% alcohol
, e.g. Syrup USP, Wild Cherry Syrup USP.
- Aromatic waters are saturated
solutions of volatile oils in water and are used to provide a pleasant
flavor or aroma, e.g. Peppermint Water, USP.
- Mucilages are thick, viscous
macromolecular solutions produced by dispersing vegetable gums in water.
They are commonly used as suspending or thickening agents, e.g. Acacia
Mucilage; Tragacanth Mucilage.
- Aqueous acids are dilute
aqueous solutions of acids (usually < 10%), e.g. Diluted HCl, USP.