Upon completion of this exercise, you should be able to:
- Define buffers, buffer capacity, isotonicity, iso-osmoticity, osmotic pressure,
- Describe the use buffers in pharmaceutical solutions.
- Identify the range of solution pH considered safe for ophthalmic solutions.
- Formulate and analyze a buffer solution of desired pH and buffer capacity.
- Explain the importance of isotonicity in ophthalmic solutions.
- Explain the importance of sterility in ophthalmic solutions.
- Explain the role of preservatives in pharmaceutical solutions.
- Formulate and prepare pharmaceutically and physiologically acceptable ophthalmic